This is actually a complex of diseases of different forms but the most common form of the disease is chronic periodontitis which is one of the most common diseases in the entire population. It is clear that there is a racial and genetic predisposition to the onset of the disease, and diabetes and smoking are extremely important risk factors in the development and prognosis of periodontitis.
What happens ?
In vulnerable patients it is generally accepted that stimuli from specific groups of bacteria (red complex) lead to specific defensive reactions by the body. This reaction in conjunction with bacterial stimuli now causes irreversible loss of attachment between bone and tooth.
What are the symptoms in the mouth?
It is important to know that periodontitis has no initial symptoms. The progression of the disease follows an intermittent pathway over the years and most are unaware of its existence until it progresses significantly. For this reason, regular check-ups by the dentist are important so that periodontal disease is recognized and treated at an early stage.
The most common symptom of advanced disease is the formation of pockets between the tooth and bone caused by loss of attachment. The gums may look the same as before, but probing with a periodontal probe helps identify these areas. Pockets help develop periodontal disease while it is almost impossible to keep the area clean at home because the problem is now deeper inside the bone. In the final stage, periodontitis causes tooth movements, increased mobility in general, recession of the gums due to supportive loss while the roots of the teeth are exposed.
Can it be treated?
The most important part of treatment is the diagnosis of periodontal disease. Once periodontitis is diagnosed, recognizing other systemic risk factors, such as diabetes or smoking, for example, plays a very important role. If modified, this is the next step in improving periodontal disease and overall health. When diabetes is regulated and smoking is stopped, the difference is significant in both the progression and prognosis of the disease.
The cornerstone of effective treatment, of course, is the perfect oral hygiene, deep scaling and root planing to remove toxins that colonize the root, infected tooth structure and the reduction of specific types of bacteria associated with periodontal disease and its progression. Various treatment protocols are used per quadrant in a single visit if possible.
The scaling is performed under local anesthesia with the help of ultrasonics but mainly with hand instruments. Additional, systemic antibiotics may be given and scaling continues in subsequent visits depending on the progression of the disease. Once the treatment is complete, monitoring a personalized dental care and re-examination program is vital to maintaining long-term results and eliminating periodontal disease.